Child Safety Initiatives
Road traffic injuries are now the leading cause of death for young people aged 15-29.
According to the WHO (2012), each year nearly 400,000 people under the age of 25 die on the world's roads - on average over 1000 per day.
Young children have some characteristics that put them at greater risk in the road environment. Children are
Ways to improve child road safety
Changing the road layout through engineering interventions such as traffic calming can reduce child pedestrian injuries (as well as injuries to cyclists and adult pedestrians). Traffic calming interventions include measures such as placing a raised concrete refuge in the middle of wide roads, putting speed bumps on the road or making the roads narrower to reduce traffic speed and volume, or to change the road environment to give priority to pedestrians.
Road safety education that focuses on the development of practical skills using problem solving methods, and educating children and their parents about the importance of adult supervision of young children whenever they are near a road, are also important.
For children in a vehicle, the main risk factor is the lack, or improper use, of a seatbelt. The three-point lap and diagonal seat-belt used by adults is not safe for children, who are smaller and lighter, as can be seen in the picture (see Related Images).
Specially made child restraints suitable for the child’s age and size, should be used for children, and these should ideally be rear-facing for younger children, and be placed in the back seat of the vehicle. There are many different types of child restraint. The child’s weight and height will determine which type is safest. An example of a child restraint for older children is pictured below. The seat-belt and child restraint manual (FIAF 2009) provides an overview of what type of child restraint is best for children of different sizes.
Education and enforcement are important in encouraging parents to use child restraints, but these will be more effective if low-cost child restraints are widely available. Loan programmes that provide restraints for low-income families and schemes that help parents correctly install a child restraint into their vehicle can also be helpful.
Bicyclists and motorcyclist passengers
In countries where cycling is mainly a form of transport (rather than a leisure activity), a large proportion of children killed in crashes are likely to be cyclists. Similarly, where motorcycling is a common mode of transport, children who are passengers (or pillion riders) are also at risk. Other than exposure, one of the main things that increases the risks is the lack of correctly worn helmets.
Head injuries account for about two in three serious injuries to cyclists, and about 75% of cyclist fatalities, and wearing a helmet dramatically reduces the risk of head injury in bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle for all age groups. Helmets should always be worn by child pillion passengers on motorcycles. Information on how helmet use can be increased is presented helmets and further detail is presented in the WHO helmets manual (WHO 2006).
Children’s safety on two-wheeled transport can also be improved through infrastructure measures such as cycle tracks and lanes and segregation of motorcycles from other motor vehicles where the volume of motorcycles is high.
Novice drivers aged 16-19 are inexperienced and at high risk compared with older and more experienced drivers. Drink-driving, speeding and non-use of seatbelts are risky behaviours that add to the risk, and peer pressure can also be factor. Young drivers with similar age passengers have a higher crash involvement. Driver training and licensing programmes with a graduated or staged approach have been effective in some countries.