Pedestrians

Pedestrians are vulnerable road users. In many countries, collisions with pedestrians are a leading cause of death and injury. In some countries, over half of all road deaths are caused by collisions between vehicles and pedestrians.

Collisions between pedestrians and vehicles occur in a number of situations, including:

  • walking in to the path of a vehicle, especially while trying to cross the road
  • walking along the roadside, or on the road
  • playing or working on the road
  • on driveways or footpaths
  • while boarding or leaving public transport vehicles.

The severity of pedestrian crashes is strongly dependent on the speed of traffic. Research shows that the chances of a pedestrian surviving an impact with a motorised vehicle reduces dramatically above 30 km/h, and even at lower speeds than this, serious harm can be caused, especially to elderly or child pedestrians.

The risk of pedestrian injuries is increased by a number factors that relate to the road environment, including:

  • high speed of traffic
  • inadequate crossing facilities
  • lack of pedestrian crossing opportunities (gaps in passing traffic)
  • number of lanes to cross
  • complexity and unpredictability of traffic movements at intersection
  • inadequate separation from traffic
  • poor crossing sight distance.
Safer Roads
Estimated cost
Casualty Reduction
Central Hatching
Low
10-25%
Pedestrian Crossing - Unsignalised
Low
25-40%
Pedestrian Fencing
Low
25-40%
School Zones
Low to medium
10-25%
Sight Distance (obstruction removal)
Low to medium
25-40%
Skid Resistance
Low to medium
25-40%
Pedestrian Footpath
Low to medium
40-60%
Pedestrian Refuge Island
Low to medium
25-40%
Regulate Roadside Commercial Activity
Low to medium
10-25%
Parking Improvements
Low to medium
10-25%
Intersection - Signalise
Medium
25-40%
Shoulder Sealing
Medium
25-40%
Speed Management
Medium
25-40%
Street Lighting
Medium
10-25%
Pedestrian Crossing - Signalised
Medium
25-40%
Traffic Calming
Medium to high
25-40%
Restrict/Combine Direct Access Points
Medium to high
25-40%
Pedestrian Crossing - Grade Separation
High
60% or more
Service Road
High
25-40%
Safer Vehicles
Estimated cost
Casualty Reduction
New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)
High
25-40%
Safer People
Estimated cost
Casualty Reduction
Enforcement
Low
60% or more
Addressing Alcohol and Other Drugs
Low
60% or more
Education
Low
60% or more
Safe Speed
Low
60% or more
Publicity
Low
60% or more
Emergency Response
Medium
40-60%

Safer Roads

Safer Roads
Estimated cost
Casualty Reduction
Central Hatching
Low
10-25%
Pedestrian Crossing - Unsignalised
Low
25-40%
Pedestrian Fencing
Low
25-40%
School Zones
Low to medium
10-25%
Sight Distance (obstruction removal)
Low to medium
25-40%
Skid Resistance
Low to medium
25-40%
Pedestrian Footpath
Low to medium
40-60%
Pedestrian Refuge Island
Low to medium
25-40%
Regulate Roadside Commercial Activity
Low to medium
10-25%
Parking Improvements
Low to medium
10-25%
Intersection - Signalise
Medium
25-40%
Shoulder Sealing
Medium
25-40%
Speed Management
Medium
25-40%
Street Lighting
Medium
10-25%
Pedestrian Crossing - Signalised
Medium
25-40%
Traffic Calming
Medium to high
25-40%
Restrict/Combine Direct Access Points
Medium to high
25-40%
Pedestrian Crossing - Grade Separation
High
60% or more
Service Road
High
25-40%

Safer Vehicles

Safer Vehicles
Estimated cost
Casualty Reduction
New Car Assessment Program (NCAP)
High
25-40%

Safer People

Safer People
Estimated cost
Casualty Reduction
Enforcement
Low
60% or more
Addressing Alcohol and Other Drugs
Low
60% or more
Education
Low
60% or more
Safe Speed
Low
60% or more
Publicity
Low
60% or more
Emergency Response
Medium
40-60%

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